Literature Review on Historic Impact of Beijing Subway Development
The London Underground has a really long history; it was set up in 1863, and it became a worldwide headline at the time. In 1890, electric trains replaced all the steam-operated trains (Jun Xie, 2005). At that time, because the steam engine exhaust posed a health risk, it was necessary to have a hole every certain distance to link to ground in order to get fresher air (Tiao, Hao, 2003). In 1905, all the trains were electric in the London Underground system. Currently, the length of the London Uundergroud is reaching/h. And o160 Kkm/h is nd ground i with a total 12 underground lines ( Jun Xie, 2005).
The New York City Subway too has more than hundred years of history, dating back to 1904; currently, the New York City Subway has a length of 370 km with 468 stations (Jun Xie, 2005). Kyes • Jackson, a New York history professor in tThe Col University, thought that if New York hads had a oubwayystem, it will wouve caused more vehicles to enter Manhattan. The resulting traffic jams and expensive parking fees would have made it almost impossible for many people to live in the city. Thus, it would have been New ssible for New York to become such a great city. (Kes • Jackson, 2002).
Paris saw the opening of its first underground in 1900; it has already developed a huge system with about 300 stations, reaching nearly everywhere in Paris (Wang Wei, 2007).
Tokyo’s underground opened in 1927; it was the first subway system in Asia. Hong Kong’s opened in 1979 (Wang Wei, 2007).
Beijing Subway History
The Beijing metro was built on July 1, 1965. In the late 1950s, the relations between China and the Soviet Union were deteriorating (Feng Gao, 2001). The line being built in 1965 was along the Chang An avenue and Beijing city from west to east (the west of Beijing city has garrison stations with the presence of huge military). This line spanned 23.6 km and 17 stations, and the line opened at october 1, 1969, 1sha Xu, 2008). According to estimates, the Beijing Ssubwy can d transported fe army combat division forces per day from the west to downtown Beij downuring wartimer day. Becausebway belonged to combat readiness engineering, the Beijing Ssubway is was notopen tublic for a long time, and people who wanted to take the Ssubway needed toget permit permissionhe government and military. On September 15, 1981, Beijing Ssubway was opense o fhe public. ( en Gao, 2001).
According to an announcement made by Premier Zhou Enlai in April 1970, Beijing Subway had a leader department, Tie Dao Bing (a Chinese military army type), which was to be responsible for the management of metro operations. The Beijing Ssubway began tosarted ming expms from combat operations in the into multones. in Beijing,By Magradually Beiinad gradually established put safety operation as the most importaactors,the improving efficiency, thy eted for the capital city’s modernization, anat wanted economic construction houldo gradually assume an becominLiang, 207), In May 1984, te municipal party committee and the city government began with a new metro management operator, because the needs of foefor war isnot urgeat that time. Since then, the Beijing Subway Company company is beingfor civil war readiness, construction, and operation.ThenThereafter, ith the refoand opening-up policy, and under the guidance of the institution, the Beijing Subway Corporate implements has implemented the subway’sal management (Beijing Subway Corporate, 2006).
As Beijing succeeded in its bid to hold the Olympic Games, the municipal party committee and the city government increased the rail transit investment and raised the speed of construction, targeting a length of 300 km for the Beijing Subway system in order to satisfy and achieve goals to improve the Chinese international image (Beijing Municipal Commission of Transport, 2008). In order to adapt to the needs of the rapid development of metro, the municipal party committee and the city government decided o restructure the Beijing metro group if Beijing Ssbway corporation in 26 July 2001. The government pllowed competition into the Beijing Subway to allow other corporates to operate different lines in the near future (Municipal Party Committee, 2009).
The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games will be held in Beijing, it create a great opportunities to develop metro (Municipal Party Committee, 2007).
The impact of Beijing Subway history on the current Beijing Subway
Because the Beijing Subway initially served the Chinese military and was managed by the Chinese central government, compared to subways in other Chinese cities and other countries, the main difference has been that the development of Beijing Subway has been important for local and even national strategy. Therefore, development of the Beijing Subway is usually related to the national strategy instead of pure local and Subway issues. The Beijing Subway inner review report (2009) revealed that it is not possible to understand the Beijing Subway using normal logic. In the past, the Beijing Subway was one of the core projects started by the military to ensure local and national safety. After several decades of development, the Beijing Subway considers more the social and economic needs. Currently, it is still strongly impacted by national and local strategies. In the last 10 years, the Beijing Subway has seen really quick development in order to meet the 2008 Olympic Games needs. The Games quickly became one of the core strategies for China. The Chinese central government s tarded it as an opportunityies make other countries to re of the real China and improve the Chinese international image. The Beijing Subway system is cor main system to solve traffic jams,; ndwill help Beijing quiquickly become worminent in the world. This is the main reason for the Beijing Subway to get so sufient funds from both local and central governments.
Another report from the Beijing Subway, called the Beijing Subway development model (2003), clearly defined the system as an important tool for the government to achieve tts strategicy eeds. Social stability is one of the core strategiesy oflocal and Chinesea stategy. And , it is important to evaluate the development of Beijing Subway have to now whether or not iited in linth the strategy, then to look at specific issues. According toThe Cal government’s Green GDP report (2009) reveals that social stable stability foundation to makefor social devt and sustamic development. And In addition, the ent core strategy is to build a” ‘Harmony harmonioussocwhich includes objecties of reduce reduction in reduclution and s energy,. Make inculcating sociade of trin thecy, and improve improving people’s life standaead of a few people getting rich. Report ofThe Beijing Subway development inner r009) points out that Beijing Subway already makes several decisions regarding the Beijing Sto satisfy Beijing local and national strategies. The main decision is mainly e change the core domestic technology to improve theg Sustem. Also, reduce a reduction in the price of tickets is envisaged, to benefit ople that couldso they can afford the Beijing Suway tickets as for dailykly development and allowing permissioto use ile and rin the tube to satsfy fulfil Oympic needs are other d taken to satisfy meet country national needs.
Situation for Sustainable Development of Beijing and Theory of Sustainability
Dobson (1998, p. 60) said ‘Sustainable development, therefore, amounts to a strategy for environmental sustainability because of the belief that a particular form of development will provide the conditions within which environmental sustainability can be guaranteed’. Also, there are many other definitions of sustainable development and urban sustainability, but generally this definition emphasizes the current development needs, which do not affect the future benefits of a certain place. The Statistical Community of the People’s Republic of China on the 2009 National Economic and Social Development shows that China continues to use a scientific approach for economic and social development, which emphasizes on the quality rather than the speed of Chinese economic growth tor achievinge sutainable development rathional Bureau of Statistics of China, 2010). The report from Beijing local government shows that the traffic issue is one of the most important challenges to achieve local sustainable development. Currently, Beijing has more than 3 million private cars, which averincreased on an average by 19.2% in the past 5 yYear. However, the spee of road construction is far lower than the rate of increase in cars (Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics, 2009).
China has huge state-owned corporates, which is an important tool for the Chinese government to achieve sustainable development. Carroll’s four-part model of corporate social responsibility defined four levels of responsibilitiesw- eonomic, legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities. Economic and legal responsibilities are required by society, and ethical is expected by society. At top level, philanthropic responsibility be desired by society .(Caroll, 1991).
Chinese Government Attitude to Sustainable Development and Transport Policy
In China, the government management style is quite bureaucratic; it is a fact that the local government must do what the central government wants it to do, and hence, the Beijing local government has to formulate a policy to satisfy central government requirements (Beijing Subway Corporate, 2003). The 2008 Beijing Statistical Green GDP inner report reveals that Beijing uses a scientific approach to manage economic and social development and the goal of Beijing is to achieve sustainable development, to make Beijing a ‘harmonious Beijing’. Harmonious Beijing emphasizes the harmony between economic and natural environment and the harmony in society (Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics, 2009). In order to solve the horrific traffic issue, the Beijing local government has implementd the public transport policy in an attempt to try to reduproportion of private cars. ( Jiang Ln,2007). On The Beij 2009–-2015 traffc planning report reveals that Beijing plans to achieve ‘“ culture tnsport”’,ã€ ‘“techiqe ransport”’ and ‘“ Geen traport”’ goals. I the plan,ning an impd underground system is the strategy to achieve the above goals and Beijing locinable development as well as to achieve the Beijing government’s ‘h“ Harmonyi Beijing’ and the cetral government’s scientific approach to manage economic and social development strategy (Beijing Municipal Commission of Ttransport, 200).
Since 2006, all localities and departments have been earnestly implementing the scientific concept of development and energy conservation and emission reduction in adjusting the economic structure, and change in the important development mode would enlarge fund investment, strengthen the responsibility, perfect the evaluation mechanism and strengthen policy coordination (Head of Beijing government, 2009). The unit of gross domestic product 14.38% in energy consumption, cod and sulfur dioxide emission 9.66% drop down 13.14%. But to realize the ‘11th five-year plan’ unit, the GDP energy consumption reduced by 20% of the target, a quite arduous task (Beijing Subway, 2009).
The ‘11th five-year plan’ energy conservation and emission reduction index is a legally binding index, which makes the solemn promise to implement the scientific concept of development, accelerate the readjustment of industrial structure and carry out the transformation of the development mode (Chinese central government international department, 2006). Chinese government think tank Jing Lian Wu illustrates that the 11th five-year plan is an important symbol of social and economic sustainable development, is in the vital interests of people, and is the international image of China (Jing Lian Wu, 2008). In another book, he analyses that in response to a global climate change, our government promised by 2020 unit of gross domestic product carbon emissions than 40-45 percent drop in 2005, the contribution of energy efficiency to achieve above 85%; this also gives saving huge challenges (Jing Lian Wu, 2009).
Scientific development is the national strategy forChina to achieves susainable development, a strategy strathed in 2009 ( XianLang Ping, 2010). The success of the Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Ggamesheld ead to thedevelopment of capital standing at a new historical starting point. In the this stage of development, we must adhere to the new concept and, promotethe capitonstruction in Beijing science and technology ( Xiao chun Zhou, 2009). ‘Green Beijing, and regard it as a thorough study of scientific development activities. We must combine the practice of the three concepts, and analysis has been made of the successful experience of the scientific development outlook, strengthening the learning and understanding to face the new changes of international and domestic situations and scientific and technological progress, accelerating the pace of industrial structure adjustment and realizing the sustainable development of the city’s economics to conform to the new demands of people (Yi Ning Li, 2009). Resolute implementation of human-oriented idea, the progress of science and technology to promote the improvement of people’s living standards and the construction of harmonious society are the needs of the hour ( Qiang He, 2009).
According to consumer behave theory, dustomers aend to spend less time on choosing products or service which are not expensive. By contrast, if products or services are more expensive, customers would take longer to decide whether to buy or use them (Brassington, F, Pettitt, S).
In order to achieve the main goal for the Beijing Subway to contribute to sustainable economic development and build a harmonious society, the Beijing and central governments have begun investing huge sums of money. From 2001 to 2008, Beijing invested on an average about 160 million pounds every year to expand the Beijing Subway and encourage public transport (Beijing Subway Corporate, 2009). Public transport includes cheaper bus and subway tickets. In addition, Beijing local government transportation commission clearly defined public transport in Beijing as non-profitable. Public transport is a tool for government to achieve its goals. Currently a single-ticket policy is implemented, as per which 2 yuan (20 pences) is all that is needed on the Beijing Subway for one time to get to anywhere in the subway network. It just costs 0.4 yuan (2 pences) to take bus once. Old people and students need to spend half to take public transport (Beijing Municipal Commission of Transport, 2009).
Other Cities’ Experience relating to the Beijing Subway
John Friedman identified and developed a four-stage model that ‘includes single, dynamic, modernizing urban core expanding hierarchy and across the rural periphery, progressively reducing urban–rural disparities and producing a homogeneous, fully integrated and modern development space’. Also Taaffe, Morrill and Gould (1963) developed a model of colonial transport network evolution that scattered ports, penetration lines and port concentration, development of feeders, beginning of interconnections and complete interconnections and emergence of high-priority links.
The Journal of Management in Engineering explored public–private partnership (PPP) that ‘metropolitan railroads in urban areas have gained significant importance in the last few years as a means of promoting sustainable transportation’ (Bottom 2003: Greenbearg, 2004). However, in practice, many contacts are incomplete. From the economic view, ‘a contract is incomplete if it fails to provide for the efficient set of obligations in each possible state of the world’ (Scott and Triantis, 2005). According to Tirole (1999), ‘incomplete contracts occur because stakeholders cannot determine in advance all of the contingencies that may arise in the future, so they have to be satisfied by signing a contract that does not explicitly refer to all eventualities’. Also, PPP contracts are usually long term, mostly over 25 years (De Bettignies and Ross, 2004). Hart (2003) concludes tith an ‘“otimal structure for contract regarding the integration of construction and operation’.”
Fleishman et al. (1996) discussed and concluded six fare categories. ‘1. Distance-based fares: determined by distance and number of zones traversed. 2. Time-based fares: determined by when to make the trip. 3. Quality-based fares: determined by operating of service. 4. Cost-based fares: determined by operating cost. 5. Route-based fares: determined by route. 6. Patron-based fares: discounted fares for students and senior citizens’.
‘London Underground’s customer and Stakeholder Insight (CSI) team decided to investigate the gap between perceptions of LU’s actual service levels and its overall brand image, in order to help the organization achieve the key strategic objective of increasing advocacy and commitment among its stakeholder groups’ (Lan Pring, 2007). Lan Pring (2007) also concluded that the impact of a bad journey is greater than that of a good journey.
Subway trains and platforms had the highest associated equivalent continuous and maximum noise levels in New York City’s Mass Transit System. The noise has exceeded the limits set by the World Health Organization and US Environmental Protection Agency ( Richard Neitzel, 2009).
Headquarters (SMSCH 1997) and Korea Occupation Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA 2005) show that a total of 79 accidents have occurred during subway construction from 1990 to 2004. Design for safety (DFS) leads to reduction in the number of accidents during construction and over the life cycle when designing and planning the Subway (Storey 1999). Gambateses and Hinze conclude that computerized tools could help avoid hazards.
David Simon concludes (1996) that there are bus-like and taxi-like public transportations. Usually, conventional forms like bus and metro provide regular routes, and there are many predetermined stops and relevant fare policy. Many of the unconventional forms use have car, hand-rickshaws, and so on. The role usually is paratransit, and it is an extremely important element in urban public transportation.
Beijing Subway Corporate in relation with Beijing sustainable economic development:
In order to facilitate sustainable and rapid development in urbanization and allow traffic system development to conform to the market rules, the Beijing subway fares should be combined with its own characteristics for accurate positioning, and a suitable operating mode should be found ( Beijing Subway corporate, 2010) . By 1996, the Beijing metro ticket price was 2 yuan with a 1 yuan transfer fee in the system. But, following the Beijing metro ‘FuBaXian’ in 2000, the connected and transfixion trial operation subway fares rose to 3 yuan. Since October 7, 20, the subway ticket price implements a single price, and the price is reduced to 2 yuan with unlimited length and transit in the entire Beijing Subway system (Li Xing, 2008). The Beijing Subway Corporate shows that the policy led to an increase by 30% in the number of passengers after one year (Beijing Municipal Commission of Transport, 2009). According to the understanding of Beijing Metro Co. Ltd, the 2004–2006 person-time operating costs were 3.04 yuan. After the price was reduced to 2 yuan per person, the government is required to pay on an average 1.25 yuan per person for maintaining daily operations. If the cost of construction of Beijing Subway is considered, the government on an average pays about 5 yuan per person to take the subway (Beijing Subway Corporate, 2010).
The target is that the local people benefit from the developments in public transportation; also, the Beijing government has tried to leverage the prices for public transportation development. The government target for ‘low price’ will at least benefit more than 80% of the local citizens in Beijing (Beijing Subway Corporate, 2007).
The state council advisors, Chinese Academy of Sciences and the strategy of sustainable development team leader Niu Wen Yuan (chief scientist professor) have foreseen a higher traffic demand with the development of in urization brings ing traffic development of in anrbzation, the new Beijing Subway development schedule reflects the current urban traffic conditions, and the degree and livable city urban–-rural proess (Niu Wen Yuan, 2009). Achievinge the Beijng public transportation urban sustainable development is clearly defined as an important strategic status and social welfare facilitiesPublic transportation in land investment, finance, and arrangement as priority to develop (Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics, 2009).
The Inner Report of Beijing Subway Corporate points out that the Beijing Subway Corporate has already become a pure government tool to deal with social problems. The Beijing Subway just does what the government wants it to do. Whether or not there is a need to change the operation model is still being discussed. However, it is really unlikely to change in the short term. The effect of the operation model is completely determined by the quality of the decision taken by the government. However, currently, most local people support the government decision, as about 80% people benefit from the development of the Beijing Subway and the low-price policy. New technology has not only made stations more safe and comfortable but also led to a a model project which could be a source of pride for most local people (Beijing Subway Corporate, 2010).
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