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Risk Factors and Symptoms of Abuse

Info: 7611 words (30 pages) Dissertation
Published: 9th Dec 2019

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Tagged: MedicalChildrenYoung People


In recent years several serious incidents have emerged, and there is a need for immediate action to ensure that vulnerable adults, children and vulnerable women who are at risk of abuse, receive protection and help. The Government prioritise such action and sees local institutions and other relevant agencies as critical partners in making sure such action is taken wherever necessary.

This report relates to guidance which builds on the Government’s respect for human rights and results from its intention to close a significant gap in the delivery of those rights alongside the enforcement of the Human Rights Act 1998.

The aim is to identify the factors that lead to abuse and their symptoms. Legislations play a significant role in the identification of those who harm innocent victims. Governments create a framework for action within which all responsible agencies work together to ensure a consistent policy for the protection of vulnerable adults at risk of harm and a consistent and appropriate answer to any circumstances giving ground for concern or formal complaints or expressions of anxiety.

The agencies involved are healthcare professional right from the primary stages aims should be to stop mistreatment where possible. If preventive strategies do not work, agencies should ensure that adequate procedures are in place for solving incidents of mistreatment. The circumstances in which harm and exploitation happen are many as is the member who is at-risk. The challenge has been to identify those involved and bring them to justice

1.2 Review the risk factors which may lead   to incidence of abuse or harm to self and others using effective judgment



Abuse may be a widespread singularity which may often go unrecognised or unnoticed in society today. It takes place in many setting and among these setting we have places like care homes, schools, hospitals as well as our homes. The perpetrator of these acts may be someone in a position of trust, authority and power who uses his position to commit such misconduct behaviours in society. Hereafter harm the health and safety of vulnerable individuals in society. As a health care professional when concerns of abuse are raised. I have a duty of care to inform Authority team at the earliest opportunity.

The following factors may lead to harm and abuse; lack of self-esteem, previous abuse, family background, psychological abuse, infirmity, functionally impaired, negative attitude, lack of training, understaffing, inadequate resources as well as an inadequate system.

Abuse can occur anywhere at any time for example, at home, in care homes, in a day centre or hospital.

There are different types of abuse and harm such as physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, financial abuse, psychological abuse or neglect, cutting oneself with a sharp object, committing suicide, excessive drinking and smoking, taking illegal substances, starving oneself, aggression, crime and violence.

An interdisciplinary review of evidence about aggression, crime and violence contradicted the view that low self-esteem is the only important cause of abuse. For example, the poor relationship between parents and their children can lead to the incidence of abuse and harm to self and others. The adolescence years represent a crucial period in the formation of teenager emotions. The failure of parent’s interaction with the growing adolescent can cause emotional distress to a child; this is because of lack of affection from the parents. However, lack of affection could lead to low self-esteem as a result of emotional problems, which can lead to negative behaviour. The lack of affection from parents can also lead to all sorts of social problems; such as drug abuse, smoking, excessive drinking because the person feels powerless or hopeless; The person could end up harming himself.

Based on (Beck, 2005) people who have mental disorders can also harm themselves or others.

Previous abuse

The person who has previously experienced abuse can easily abuse others. These abuses include; a parental punishment which can be detrimental to some people as they grow up. Those abuses could be hitting, slapping, pushing, pinching, force feeding, kicking, scalding, cuts, fractures, burning with hot water or cigarette.

Low income (poverty)

Low-income living may lead people to participate in unhealthy lifestyle; for example, lack of engagement in society, lack of engagement in sports club activities. As a result that individual feels less important and worthless in society. Such person may develop depression and the inability to cope with difficult situations that can lead to abuse or harm.


In cultures like the African culture, a baby boy is more important than a girl. Based on that belief, families treat boys better than girls. They invest more in the education of boys than girls; this could cause psychological abuse to the girls. They can see themselves less important than males in the family; which could lead to incidence of abuse and self-harm.

Sexual act without consent

Children, who get sexually abused at a young age, can develop different kinds of psychological problems in the future. Sexual assault includes; rape, masturbation, indecent exposure, penetration or attempted penetration, touching intimate areas, sexual harassment, forced viewing of pornography, compelled to witness sexual acts, participation in sexual without consent. All the above factors can lead to the incidence of abuse and/or harm to self and others.

Mistreatment acts

People who had been mistreated in the past can become abusive in the future. A victim of mistreatment at the hand of a trusted person can develop emotional problems that can lead them mistreating others in the same manner. These emotional problems can also lead them to harm themselves or abuse other. Different kind of mistreatments can be considered in this example, such as; bullying, threatening behaviour, shouting, blaming, too much of control, deprivation of privacy or dignity.

Inadequate system

An inadequate system is a type of organisation system that suits the needs of the institution but does not meet the needs of service users. The planning of the system, rules and regulations is not to the welfare, rights, and dignity of the service users. For example; adequate care is not provided to the service user. If the service user is not treated adequately, he can abuse and/or harm self or others.

Unskilled staff

Health and social care organisations have the responsibility of training their employees to meet the needs of service users. Unskilled staff can upset the service user and cause an incidence of abuse and harm.

The prevention of abuse and harm to self or others is a collective responsibility of all sections of life. However, those agencies, independent sector organisations and voluntary groups working in contact with vulnerable people who are at risk, hold a responsibility to ensure safety. The prevention of abuse and early detection of abuse may be acted upon to ensure appropriate protective action can be taken and those involved detained. In most cases those who abuse are the victims of abuse, this means even they need help psychologically.

Abuse of vulnerable people should be related as soon as possible. If an allegation has been reported, we have to inform the person alleging that you have a duty to inform a senior person and assurance should be delivered in a manner that exhibits a compassionate and empathetic disposition in case they do not want to pursue the complaint any further.

As a team leader in my workplace, It is my duty to report any allegations of abuse or harm to my manager for further investigation. The person making the allegation should be encouraged and where possible supported to report it to the relevant authorities; for example, the safeguarding team, social workers and the police.

Care homes should have policies and procedures in place to ensure that every staff member is working based on the care act 2014; as CQC requires that all care providers must have updated policies, and all staff members must have up-to-date training. It is staff members responsibility to ensure that relevant policies are followed and maintained. If policies are not followed, adequate actions should be taken to address the issue. Policies are not only in place for the service users, but they are also there for the safety of staff members. (The National Archives, 2014)

Safeguarding monitoring should be ongoing and should begin at the outset of the safeguarding process. Its purpose is to address any immediate and emerging risks as the investigation progresses and should be finalised at the Case Conference meeting. The adult at risk’s wishes and views should be the leading and central consideration in Safeguarding Planning. (Adass, 2011)

At my place of work, we have the duty to ensure that vulnerable people are kept safe regarding protecting their rights based on legal frameworks. There are policies we thoroughly follow in our practice; such as, never attempt to harm or abuse our service users. Our organisation work together with other professionals to make sure that the clients who are at risk of abuse or harm are safe and their needs are met.

1.3 Analyse the impact of social and cultural factors on different types of abuse and / or harm to self and others

Each person possesses his or her unique values, attitudes, beliefs and preferences. Social and cultural factors may influence abuse and/or harm to self or others; such as belonging to a minority ethnic group, social discrimination and religion. Making someone a scapegoat may contribute to a different kind of abuse, which may occur with vulnerable individuals. (ADSS, 2005)

Cultural factors

Culture is a method of living, thinking and behaving; which includes many elements such as language, customs, beliefs, traditions and ways of communicating. An individual’s cultural participation influences how the person acts toward others in society. Culture is a source of power. Culture participation enhances social cohesion, which creates occasions for socialisation that are particularly attractive. A person’s culture is important to her/him because it identifies the person. It develops within the social group where they are raised. A person can change his or her culture when he/she is mature enough to take the decision on his/her own. In the care sector, we do value people culture, beliefs and their preference.

Cultural, traditions, values and beliefs could affect individuals within the family also those who are around them. For example forced marriage, which; forces a person to marry a spouse chosen by parents, this could affect a person life through emotional distress and lead to abuse and harm.

In some cultures, girls parents are required to pay dowries to the groom’s family. It can put considerable pressure to the bride’s family and may lead to abuse and harm to the bride. Some parents kill their girls to avoid paying dowries in the future.

Forced marriages are a major cultural factor that can lead to the abuse of the girl being forced to marry against her will. In this case, the girl’s family puts so much pressure on her, which can lead to suicide or self-harm. Many cases of forced marriages have resulted in the parents of the bride killing their daughter in what is called “honour killing”. They believe that their girl brings shame to the family by refusing to marry their chosen groom. Even running away from the husband’s home after a forced marriage constitutes an act of shame punished by death.

In other cultures, adults’ men are allowed to marry their spouse before they are born. While the bride’s mother is pregnant, dowries are given in case the baby is a girl. That can put great pressure on the girl after she is born. Often in those cases, the girl is sent to live with the groom before her puberty, which leads to abuse and harm to the girl. A lot of girls in this situation end up committing suicide.

Circumcision is another cultural factor that can lead to abuse. Girls are circumcised by force against their will, which constitutes a form of abuse. Some of these girls commit suicide before Circumcision.


Religious beliefs can significantly affect a person’s attitude or behaviour. It may affect society, for example, a female Muslim wearing hijab. Non-Muslims may take that badly, and it may cause distress to identify their identity through their face.

In Islam, Muslims are not allowed to marry a person from another religion. Marrying a person from another religion can lead to all kind of abuse and/or harm from the Muslim person’s family. The person is rejected from the family and can be murdered in some cases. It can also lead to the person harming himself after family rejection.

Some religions consider people from other religions as non-believers who deserve to die because of their beliefs. Because of their religion beliefs, They are capable of caring out atrocious murders and harm to people from other religions.

Social factors

May include housing, health, poverty, social exclusion and lack of support. Poverty can have a significant impact on the level of abuse for the individual based on financial difficulties that could lead to the involvements in criminal activities, lack of respect, social isolation, poor development and depression. Findings indicate that when it comes to the drinking can develop multi-substance of abuse such as; depression as well as anxiety disorders that can lead to them causing harm and/or abusing others.


Poverty can raise the risk of abuse to children and also increase the likelihood that they could suffer from the poor health as well as poor education outcomes. Abused children often grow up to become abusers themselves or may harm themselves. The welfare of children must remain a priority at all times, failure to meet a child’s basic needs is abuse and will result in him/her abusing and/or harming others or self.

Social exclusion

Social exclusion is a form of discrimination. In particular, people get excluded from participating in the economic, social and political life within their community, based on their social class or group. Benefit cuts can also lead to isolation and poverty, which may lead to crime and aggressive behaviour from the low-income person.

If I the quality of life of individuals is affected, they may take abusive and harmful actions that can affect society.

I think that continued exposure to a diversity of ideas from cultural experiences of all kinds would, over time, change attitudes and values.

 As a professional who works in the care sector, to meet my client’s needs; I need to recognise individuality and diversity of my service user. By valuing each service user as an individual and respect their priorities, needs, abilities as well as limits (DH, 2009). As we care for people, it is important to be skilled, so that will be able to understand the client’s needs without stereotyping and labeling them.

Although it is impossible to achieve good knowledge of all the diverse cultures; the understanding these factors can significantly increase professionals effectiveness. Professionals need to take into consideration families’ cultural and religious context when undertaking assessments and rendering support. A lack of understanding the of the religious and cultural background of families can lead to professionals overlooking problems that may put family members at risk.

2.1   Analyse the strengths and weakness in current legislation and policy relating to those vulnerable to abuse using a range of sources of information

Improving practice in adult protection, this requires strict measures and strategies to prevent the multi-practices and scenes from happening and government putting in places many rules and regulations for those involved in direct care to abide. Training for those provide care to vulnerable people is required.  The guidance papers “No Secrets” and “In Safe Hands” should be monitored to ensure that they are always up-to-date and ready. Adequate models for service user participation and involvement need to be developed and circulated. (GOV.UK, 2000)

NHS and Community Care Act 1990, under the act, social care departments were put in charge of community care for elderly. These services would be geared to what senior needs rather than what was available. These needs were learnt following a community care assessment. The fact is that planning for community care is a vital function of both health and social services. For community care to be effectively planned and delivered, it has become clear since 1990 that health and social services need to work closely together. Since the election of the Labour government in 1997, the joint working has been accelerated with its emphasis on “joined – up- working”. (The National Archives, 1990)

The health act 1999 set up a mechanism for health and social services to pool their budget for some services, and in many areas, there have been joint –funded teams set up with representatives of both health and social services on the workforce. (Gov.uk, 1990)

The NHS plan of 2000 proposed that a mechanism for taking this further by setting up joint care trust, which would pool the resources of health and social services for the purpose of planning commissioning and providing care services.

In the past, people with complex health and social care needs have had to negotiate with the two separate agencies, and this could make their lives unnecessarily complicated.

The local authority delegates the responsibility for providing social care for an agreed population to the care trusts but retains overall accountability for service. The care trust also provides health care services for this group of people. It means that there is one organisation dealing with an individual’s social and health care needs, resulting in a more integrated service.

Overall, the regulation under the care act set out how assessments of adults must be carried out to ensure the needs of the user of service are considered.

Mental health act 1983 is designed for someone with a mental health problem to be admitted into hospital against his or her will. It is called “sectioned” or “ involuntary admission”.

The act is enacted to safeguard the rights of mentally ill people, and to ensure that they are only admitted to hospital without their consent when it is essential to ensure their well-being or safety. Under this act, doctors and other professionals are first required to take into account all other treatment options and to only detain someone against their will as a last result. (The National Archives, 1983)

The act fails to focus on the needs of mentally ill people, it does not take into account the principle of reciprocity and is likely to infringe individual’s human rights. Safeguards are for people who lack the capacity to consent to treatment, for example, her or his mental disorder. The provisions must set out the circumstances in which the compulsory powers under mental health legislation should be used if it is intended to treat people who lack the capacity to agree to such treatment.

The mental capacity act 2005 incorporated new provisions that improve adult safeguarding in respect of people lacking capacity. The findings point to the potential of the act to assist with the prevention of mistreatment and neglect, through allowing people to make decisions about their future and exercise some choice and control; for example, the professionals to abide by the code of practice and act in a person’s best interests. (The National Archives, 2005)

Care Standard Act 2000 was passed on 20 July 2000. The Act aims at extending the regulation of social care and follows on from two white papers published by the government 1998 and 1999 entitled “ Modernising social service and building for the future” (GOV.UK, 2000)

The protection of vulnerable adults scheme was enacted by the care standards act 2000. It aims to make sure that no one is allowed to work in the care sector if they have ever abused, neglect or otherwise harm vulnerable adults or placed them at risk.

Many clients require intense levels of support, which could be deemed intimate person care. It is required to register the care homes. Under the new registration recommendations, we will have to pay all expenses regarding the physical alterations of premises and training costs, but lose the flexibility afforded to care providers through supporting people.

Most importantly, many of clients will be denied the opportunity to be supported in a way that truly maximises their independence.

Health and social care act 2006, have the strength of protecting clients using residential care by making sure that any independent sector care home that provides accommodation together with nursing a person care for a local authority is subject to the human rights act 1998.

The concern is that, the extent to which care home registration meets the requirements of people with multiple and complex needs. Most clients have a variety of needs that don’t respond neatly to “ off the shelf “ support of care package.

In conclusion, I can say that the effective support can only be achieved when a client’s needs are correctly assessed, and a care package is sufficiently provided in response.

Children act 1998, the intention of the legislation is that children’s welfare and developmental needs are met, such as; to be protected from harm, to respect child’s rights based on race, culture and ethnicity, child’s wishes and decision-making to be taken into account.

The advantage of this Act is that children can express their preferences and views and these have to be listened and taken into consideration. Also, the circumstance under which children can be taken into care, but it is clear that action should be taken only if it is necessary.

The weakness of this Act are; the social workers are not held to account by others outside their department as well as children under the age of 10 years old are considered to be old enough to be responsible, for example; committing criminal offences.( crime)

Equality Act 2000 is there to protect people from discrimination, the strength of this act is this Act bring together around 116 pieces of equalities legislation into a single act. The equality act is a potential powerful act which shaping the service delivery that is free from discrimination. The Act gives institutions a further duty that requires taking proportionate action to tackle disadvantage and improve. The weakness of this act is to protect disabled people from discrimination; to make sure that vulnerable people are getting the care they need without any form of favouritism is professionals to deliver the sufficient service at all the time. (The National Archives, 2010)


The role of Acts is to prevent abuse being perpetrated. When enacting an Act, it is essential to assure that the Act will serve as a barrier to any abuse.

3.1 Write an essay to explain existing working practices and strategies designed to minimise abuse in of client in the care home

Abuse refers to the misuse of power and control that one person possesses upon another. Dependency can raise the possible factors of abuse or neglect unless proportionate safeguards are put in place. An intent is not an issue when deciding if an act or failure to act on one or more instances is abuse. It is the effect of what is done or not done on a person and the harm or risk of serious harm to him or her that arises, at the time or over time, which matters.

Good practice to minimise abuse is about making sure that the risk is identified and incorporated into the safeguarding plan. Those who are involved in the safeguarding plan must clarify their roles and responsibilities clear on how this will be monitored and reviewed. Good and effective communication must be maintained to all those involved in supporting team.

The plan should include a recorded agreement, also how this will be incorporated into the vulnerable person’s support plan. Also, include an assessment of any risk relating to this, the time scale should support the person want and how he/she wants it.

The meeting should address the concerns and measures on how a particularly vulnerable person can be supported this should be in best interest of users of service. The copies of the subsequent finalised plan should be circulated to all within safeguarding team.

(Adass.org.uk, 2011) According to the ADASS Advice report, April 2011, Information and advocacy can make promoting protection and self-protection of older people vulnerable to abuse. The report quotes evidence from the Commission for Social Care Inspection;

“Councils, care providers and regulators all have crucial roles to play in ensuring that the essential elements of prevention and early intervention are in place, namely:

• People being informed of the right to be free from abuse, and supported to

exercise these rights; including having access to advocacy.”

Government policy on Adult Safeguarding was issued on 16 May 2011, articulates six principles to benchmark local safeguarding adults’ arrangements, the outcomes associated with their application and to consider progress. These principles have also been used in draft police safeguarding adults’ guidance [2011] currently being consulted upon. This helps our service users as far as possible to avoid or control situation or relationship, which would make them vulnerable to abuse. They reflect the ADASS approach to safeguarding adults and are:

• Empowerment: presumption of person led decisions and informed consent.

• Protection: support and representation for those in greatest need.

• Prevention: it is better to act before harm occurs.

• Proportionality: proportional and least intrusive response appropriate to the risk presented.

• Partnership: local solutions through services working with their communities.

Communities have a part to play in preventing, detecting and reporting abuse and neglect.

• Accountability: Accountability and transparency in delivering safeguarding.

Staff, volunteers, communities along with health professionals all have an important role in speaking up for people who may be vulnerable, more at risk of harm and less able to protect themselves. Getting this message across is one of the keys to prevention, recognition, reporting and responding to neglect and abuse; in enabling people to feel supported and to maintain a sense of choice and control over their situation.

Local procedures remind us, risk cannot be eliminated: risk is an inevitable consequence of people making decisions about their lives. What matters is that we work with individuals to help them. We must recognise risks and develop a shared understanding of what can be undertaken regarding living their life as they wish while reducing the risk of harm they may experience. Making risks clear and understanding it is important to the management within processes of personalised care and support where people have choices and control over their lives.

Local authorities have the responsibility for developing local multi-agency safeguarding procedures and ensuring their application with the principal partners such as the police, health and housing staff members. They must adhere to local procedures to form part of the contractual arrangements by

setting out and publishing the procedures for responding to cases of mistreatment.

Organisations must enact personnel policies, which ensure that all potential staff are regularly checked. Professionals references must be obtained and verified. DBS checks should be carried out, and there must be clearance through the protection of vulnerable Adult register.

Training staff must remain vigilant any watch out for any signs of abuse of our residents from whatever source.

No Secrets DoH 2000

It is the Department of Health guidance on developing multi-agency policies and procedures to protect vulnerable adults from abuse. Social services departments were given the lead role in ensuring that local multi-agency policies and codes of practice were developed and implemented by 31 October 2001. This guidance remained in force until around 2013. In May 2011 the government issued a Declaration of government policies about safeguarding adult. (GOV.UK, 2000)

The declaration sets out the six principles of safeguarding which have taken account of the answers to the public consultation about “No Secrets” in 2008, the implementation of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and the drive towards increasing personalization of services. The government intends to legislate to make Safeguarding Adults Boards statutory with care home providers. Providers may come up with more detailed guidance for their staff. (The National Archives, 2005)

On 1 April 2015, Care Act 2014 replaced No Secrets. The Act contains replacement and essential requirements about adult safeguarding. (The National Archives, 2014)

The Care Act 2014, states that sharing information between organisations about known or suspected risks may help to prevent abuse taking place. The safeguarding adult’s board has a crucial role to play in the exchange of information and intelligence on threats and risks from local and national. The board’s annual report must give information concerning any safeguarding adults reviews. It can include learning to inform future prevention strategies. Designated adult safeguarding managers should also have a role in highlighting the extent to which their organisation prevents mistreatment and neglect taking place. (The National Archives, 2014)

Abuse or neglect can be deliberate or not, malevolent or planned. More often, events and actions may be clouded by stress and isolation brought on by caring. Often, professionals will be trying their best, and some may not have the information they need. Staff do not always know the right way to do things. They may feel what they are doing is alright if the person is safe, for example; restraining a client or forbid him or her from travelling independently. It may include an unwillingness to change or accept cases for change. The need for change may be received as a criticism or a lack of real understanding about their situation.

Working with General Practice are also needed to develop stronger referral pathways that are person-centered and proportionate to risks presented instead of simply process driven. We should all remember that a better understanding of risks of harm could be critical to deterrence from significant harm in the first place. The framework of assessment and continuous monitoring and sharing information both at primary and secondary level is vital in minimizing the risks of abuse in care homes and other residential services for service users within the industry.

3.2 Evaluate the effectiveness of working practices and strategies used to minimise abuse in the health and social care contexts in the case study provided

The client is the most important part of the care process, and his or her needs and wellbeing have to be taken into account during the decision-making process. Based on this case study the young woman seems to have lack capacity to be at the centre of decision-making as mental capacity act 2005 require. The deprivation of liberty safeguards (DoLS) was introduced into the mental capacity act 2005 by using the Mental Health Act 2007 to give a legal framework about denial of freedom. (The National Archives, 2005)

According to the Valuing People White Paper 2001; clients should be free to make choices regarding their lives, to plan their lives and take part in any decision making process.

According to the case study, the client has Smith-Magenis syndrome, which is linked to development delay, learning disabilities, behavioural difficulties and disturbed sleep. Thus, she is unable to make adequate choices regarding her life. It is a challenge to get her involved in the decision-making process.

Safeguards are delivered for vulnerable people who lack the capacity to make decisions relating to their care or treatment for the aim of protecting their interests. It is to ensure that the vulnerable are given the care they require but in the least restrictive way. Also to deprive liberty to vulnerable people, to avoid any unnecessary bureaucracy.

In this case study, the Council is playing a crucial role in supporting the family, as all the Safeguarding Adults frameworks cannot be applied because of the syndrome suffered by the client. Although Safeguarding Adults frameworks, Standard 11 states the following; the service users must be included as vital partners in the care plan. Organisations working in a partnership must build clients participation into their care plan and provision of safeguarding services. The rule is clear in its promotion of the important values of liberty, respect, self-esteem. Opinions are requested for all separate clients and care workers concerning the provision and endings of safeguarding work for them; the partnership identifies and encourages the significance of community and neighbourhoods networks in stopping maltreatment and safeguarding the most vulnerable. (ADSS, 2005)

The above guidelines cannot be applied in this case; however, The Mental Capacity Act allows the use of restrictions and restraints to be used for the person’s best interest. This act can be applied in this case study for the young woman best interest because it is already established that she lacks the mental capacity to come out with a constructive decision. Therefore, restrictions and restraints can be applied in this case to stop her from going downstairs and destroy furniture and fittings, empty the contents of the fridge and cupboards, eat copious quantities of food that can put her health at risk, and temper with electrical appliances which can result in catastrophic consequences. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 also comprises the deprivation of freedom for the best interest of the service users and can be applied efficiently in this case by the young woman’s family with the support of the relevant authorities. (The National Archives, 2005)

It exists effective safeguards against risks of maltreatment or negligence. Risk does not constitute a justification for a limitation of liberty. The human rights state that individuals have the right to be treated with dignity and respect, right to freedom without torture, and be able to live their lives how they choose. Based on human rights article 5 is acknowledge that everyone has the right to liberty and that it should only be restricted if there is a specific legal justification which the parents applied to their daughter.

The seven principles regarding Adult Social Care are free in nature. Every principle has an impact to make to safeguard outcomes for care workers and service users.

The young woman’s family in this case study handled the situation by the relevant laws and guidelines. The local authority determined that no deprivation of liberty has been imposed on the young woman, even though, according to the Extra Safeguards, the family could have asked the local authority to apply to the Court of Protection for authorization of the deprivation of liberty.

Training can be provided to the young woman’s family to reduce the risk of abuse and harm while caring for their daughter. Some unintentional actions can be detrimental to the young lady due to the lack of relevant caring skills from the family.

Record keeping, in this case, is of utmost importance, it can be used to monitor the situation, to reduce or increase the level of restriction. The Council and family of the young woman should work in partnership for her best interest. Regular visits from the Council should be undertaken to guaranty the wellbeing of the young woman.


The Council has a responsibility to help stop abuse by knowing how it can develop and how to report and react to maltreatment when it arises.

The vulnerable people wishes and views should be the loading and central consideration in safeguarding planning and notwithstanding risk to others that this might affect. The judgment must look the capacity of a young woman who can have significant consequences for her and other people around her.

3.3 Discuss possible improvements to working practices and strategies to minimise abuse in the context of the case study provided, generating innovative and creative ideas


The improvement to working practice is about understanding the barriers and creating potential solutions that significantly could have a positive impact on the organisation. Good practice has strategies that make the effective way in achieving the targeted goal. It is important to select the method of assessment to individual users of service. It will enable to meet the individuals’ needs of service users. According to the case study, it has been successful as parents working in collaboration with local authorities, which have positive impact to meet, the young woman needs.

The improvements to strategies to minimise abuse in this case study is when the skilled workers work together to protect the young woman welfare. It is the process of protecting the user of service rights as either suffering or at risk of suffering serious harm as because of abuse.

Partnership working in the adult protection field among agencies measures are taken to monitor and evaluate the possibility of abuse to vulnerable people. It is vital for people to make independent decisions. Although it is challenging to carry out decision-making for those with learning disabilities, the safeguarding team and local authority can work together with parents accordingly.

All agencies that work for the protection vulnerable adhere to protection policies and procedures as part of their compliance with agreements. The purpose of partnership working is to ensure that the rights of service users are handled safely. The record and arrangement must contain precise information about the young woman so that the risk can be maintained, controlled or prevented. In addition to that, the information should be made available to all service user family and those who are responsible for safeguarding this young woman in this case study.

The advantage of partnership working and practice as a strategy could reduce abuse to vulnerable people; for example, Multi-agency adult protection training has been developed in adult social care. Which regulatory frameworks are considered to be the most useful for adult protection as in this case study local authority working together with family for the benefit of the young woman?. As good practice involve reviewing the effectiveness in addressing issues; the case study findings shows that the local authority confirmed that there is no deprivation of liberty which was justified.

Considering the knowledge and skills dissemination and development of staff and users of service will be able to test effectiveness through feedback and safeguarding adults can contribute to improved recognition and prevention of abuse. Training of parents could help the parents to have the skill of awareness of abuse and safeguarding policies and procedures. Empowerment and choice have to be at the centre of safeguarding policy and practice in this case. Empowering parents will enable them to know how they will protect their child from abuse.

More training for those involved in adult protection is required; this needs to be multi-agency in nature and scope. The guidance documents (No Secrets) should be reviewed to ensure that they remain up-to-date and fit for purpose. The collaboration between inter-agency working could promote the development of information sharing, perceptions of goodwill and positive relationship as well as mutual understanding and shared acknowledgement of the importance of the young woman and her family rights.

In this case study, it is important to bring up good practice because the person who is at the centre of service lacks the mental capacity to make decisions on her own. Based on that, the local authority must help the family provide better and efficient service to their daughter. If the parents are aware of risk factors, they can use this knowledge to develop effective risk assessments and prevention strategies. If parents and local authorities can agree on common goals and the government provide adequate fund, then, the young woman will receive appropriate care service.

Excellent communication should flow between stakeholders involved in the care of the young woman. Sharing knowledge between expertise, skills as well as clarity of roles and responsibilities could improve working practices that can minimise abuse to the client.

The identification of risk leading to early intervention and better preventative action are as follows;

-Lack of commitment to partnership working,

-Agencies not providing necessary resources (financial or human resources),

-Lack of clarity about the roles and responsibilities of each agency,

-Delays in decision making at the strategic and operational levels, which were often connected to differing priorities between agencies.

-Insufficient information sharing,

Protection of Vulnerable Adults List and legislation relating to youth justice.

The (POVA) list was introduced in a period of uncertainty about its implementation).

Professionals reported both Criminal Records Bureau checks and the Protection of Vulnerable Adults List as having the most potential impact on helping parents to support their daughter as it has specific legislation which standardises the policy and practice. The parents, in this case, understand their roles and responsibilities when taking care of their daughter.

– The need for a statutory requirement for local authority to participate to ensure that sufficient care is provided to the young woman by satisfying her needs.

Views can differ among professionals about ‘adult protection’, with little overall awareness of the systems relating to adults protection that exist. For those people with experience of adult protection systems, the lack of involvement of service users and their care provider within adult protection systems can cause problems around the apparent lack of inter-agency work in this area, with information sharing, communication and delays.

The partnership between local authority and parents as partners in caring for this young lady shows that the system cared for her needs with respect and value. The local authority assessed the progress of the young woman and how safeguarding outcomes are taken seriously by the parents. The court did not find the parents guilty. It seems that they did a good job based on safeguarding. The parents engaged with practitioners to ensure that their daughter is receiving safe care. Local authority and court recognised their involvement and actions.


It is important, therefore, for management to be conscious of the factors supporting empowerment and how these can be integrated into the change process. If you have a good relationship and mutual trust between yourself and members of your team, they will be more receptive to new ways of thinking, including any improvement methods that you may want to introduce. . Develop local quality assurance on procedures and on the supervision of how to manage risks, processes and achievement of positive outcomes. Review risk enabling and risk management rules and practice to include combined safeguarding and personalization practice within organisational cultures. A local strategic framework formed by local strategic partnership ensures staff understand policies and systems.

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The term Young People often refers to those between childhood and adulthood, meaning that people aged 17-24 are often considered to be a young person.

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