1.1 Introduction to Topic
Within this section, the author will present a general understanding of the topic, celebrity endorsement, and luxury. In addition to this, the problem definition, statement and theoretical framework will be presented followed by the relevance of the study.
Within the 1970’s Baker and Churchill (1977) began celebrity endorsement as a marketing strategy. Till (1998) states ‘celebrity endorsement is a strategy which increases awareness of the endorsed products and at the same time it strengthens the consumers perceived associated between the endorsed product and the attributes of the celebrity’
In addition, the utilization of celebrities within a marketing communications strategy has now become a prevalent practice for businesses when in fortifying brand image. Atkin and Block (1983) highlights ‘companies have invested a substantial amount of money to match their brand with celebrity endorsers’ who have qualities such as amiability, trustworthiness, and attractiveness to underpin competitive advantage for a company’s products. Additionally, celebrities do not only aim to retain and engender attention but they accommodate to achieve a high standard of recall rates for marketing communication messages. Meanwhile, Ohanian (1990) purported to select celebrity endorsers to have a managerial paramountcy as it is essential the right celebrity endorsement strategy is implemented as it can become an efficacious implement within saturated markets to distinguish products from competitors.
However, Atkin and Block (1983) argue that celebrity qualities may be unfitting, irrelevant, and undesirable when it comes to selecting the ‘right’ celebrity endorser; it will be a challenge, despite all the qualities celebrity endorsement still has an impact on consumer behaviour. Consequently, it is required to address the impact of celebrity endorsement on consumer buyer behaviour.
More significantly, the most attractive reason that this topic was chosen is due to celebrity endorsement being the most prevalent advertising technique and strategy today. It is widely used within marketing communication to create positive effects as well as negative effects in the minds of consumers.
Ohanian (1990) contends the strategy of celebrity endorsement will have positive outcomes for both the company and celebrity as by using the celebrity the consumer perceives a feeling of association and security as the consumers view them as a figure in which they look up to recommending the product, as the assumption which is being made is that consumers are most likely to identify themselves with the celebrity and they purchase the product because they would like to be like the celebrity.
1.2 Problem Statement
When looking into the topic of celebrity endorsement, there are some issues which have remained unclear. These issues follow as; what are the current facing effects of using celebrities to endorse luxury goods, and how celebrities can influence the attitudes of consumers towards the brand?
Furthermore, what are the positive effects of celebrity endorsement? what are the negative effects of celebrities endorsing brands or products? In what ways can the use of celebrity endorsement change the attitudes or behaviour of the consumers towards the brand itself? When celebrity endorsers are negatively perceived by consumers does this influence the attitude of the consumers negatively or positively?
As a result, the problem statement of this research follows; How does celebrity endorsement influence consumer buying behaviour when purchasing luxury goods and how does negative publicity affect the relationship?
1.3 Research Question
To gain more knowledge on the topic and to provide answers to the research problem statement, the questions below have been considered.
- What is the effect of celebrity endorsement on consumer buying behaviour?
- Does negative publicity influence the buying decision of consumers when purchasing luxury goods?
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Celebrity Endorsement
The use of celebrities in connection to marketing communication strategy is a very popular practice for companies in enhancing their brand image. Regardless of the popularity and credibility of a celebrity Biswas, Hussain and O’Donnell (2009) contended that there is a need to find out the influence of celebrity endorsement on the purchasing behaviors’ of the consumers, as there are several pitfalls associated with celebrity endorsers this is apparent in a range of cases of brands failing in the market even with famous celebrities endorsing them.
Added to this, it has been expounded by Basic, Hansen, and Byberg (2016) the term Celebrity can be defined as, “celebrities are people who relish public apperception by a sizably voluminous portion of a certain group of people”. Likewise, McCracken (1989) highlights a celebrity endorser is “any individual who relishes public apperception on behalf of consumer goods by appearing in advertisement”.
Moreover, celebrity endorsement can influence the feelings of the consumers and at the same time impact the feelings the consumers will have towards the brands and advertisements, which could potentially increase the purchase intentions as well as incrementing sales.
Furthermore, Atkin and Block (1983) claimed that celebrities’ aids advertisers to stand out and attract attention, as they are viewed more trustworthy and entertaining. Besides, Hofstede (1984) points out celebrity image influences brand image which hypothetically allows a new product to be introduced.
Yet, Walker, Langmeyer, and Langmeyer (1992) reasoned that a celebrity’s personal issues and negative publicity can affect the brand image, this could eventually change consumers’ views of the brand due to the negative publicity of the celebrity (Fathi and Kheiri, 2016).
While Mooij (1994) explains celebrity endorsement as another good way for companies to enter the foreign markets as celebrities who have a global popularity can support a company spread their message around the world. Furthermore, Hofstede (1984) noted as celebrities represent the same image around the world they have the benefit to help companies break through barriers when dealing with cultural roadblocks.
Finally, Mooij (1994) concluded it is important for celebrity endorsers mirror the image the advertiser wants for the brand as consumers may perceive “a brand as a representation of what the whole brands stand for.” Consequently, a celebrity should not be associated with too many brands as it will lessen their reliability.
2.2 Celebrity Endorsement in Advertising
As the use of celebrity endorsement is increasing it has now become a significant part of the marketing strategy in some of the major businesses with the purpose of supporting a brand and corporate imagery, especially for the luxury brands (Qureshi and Malik, 2017)
Many businesses have invested a substantial amount of resources in comparing organizations and brands with some endorser qualities like trustworthiness, likeability, and trustworthiness. These businesses trust that these positive qualities could create some desirable campaign outcomes and operate in a way that is transferable predominantly for the luxury goods (Qureshi and Malik, 2017)
Nevertheless, there are additionally likelihoods that the celebrities’ qualities could be undesirable, impertinent, and infelicitous. The qualities of the celebrity endorser will then have some effect on the consumer comportment and how they detect a product to be. So, the primary question becomes; how can organizations make a selection and retain the ‘appropriate’ celebrity among a range of competing options? How can the same organization manage this resource simultaneously while at the same time managing the possible pitfalls? (Qureshi and Malik, 2012)
2.3 Defining Luxury
The term luxury has become more ambiguous due to the increasing availability of luxury products. This new change has led to a new meaning as to what a luxury item really is. According to Bran and Castell, (2013) luxury is defined as a link with wealth, power, and exclusivity as well as the satisfaction of non-basic necessities.
Added to this luxury is also defined as a state of great comfort or elegance especially when it involves great expense Oxford Dictionary (2014). Based on both definitions it is evident that when it comes to luxury it is suggested it comes at a great expense.
However, Wiedmann et al (2007) suggest that luxury goods are things that are not possessed or affordable for everyone. Yet, Prendergast and Wong (2003) found that price is not the most important part to consider when purchasing higher-end products but more so the quality. This belief allows companies to charge a premium price whilst considering the quality meets the consumers’ needs and expectations.
Findings Mintel (2011) found suggests when a company launches a well-positioned product it can potentially increase product’s accessibility, encouraging consumers to spend despite the price rise and economic crises.
Lastly, people are most likely to rate items as a luxury if they believe it is something that not everyone has or can afford this belief could be related to the consumption level of luxury goods within postmodern societies has given everyone a right to access luxury (Krapferer, 2012).
2.4 Luxury Goods
Majority of the consumers in the UK tend to purchase the luxury brands because of their self-expression, hedonic, quality, scarcity, and unique attributes (Atwal and Williams, 2009). Irrespective of the improved growth of the luxury products in the market as well as the rich knowledge regarding them, a lack of consensus as to what involves a luxury brand still exists.
Atwal and Williams (2009) defines the consumption of luxury products as being driven by the relations, effects, and opinions of other individuals. The use of the luxury goods is inclined by internal factors such as feelings and emotions. Consequently, these goods are usually consumed either for constructive and status impression, social acknowledgement.
2.5 Celebrity Endorsement Impact on Consumers
Kelman (2001) explains, the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement in advertising can be explained through the Kelman procedures of social impacts and influence. It is further explained, that the three processes of social influence exist leads to an individual accepting a attitude which is encouraged by the communicator.
Internalization, when elaborated as a process of social influence, is said to have taken place when consumers accept the attitude of another person due to the alternative behaviour is perceived as sincere and honest and is also corresponding with their personal value systems (Kelman, 2001).
Still, the efficiency of celebrity endorsement in advertising has not been allied with this process traditionally. As the reason for a celebrity to promote a particular product can be credited easily by the consumer as the motive of just getting the advertisement fees which is an external motive or an internal purpose which is the real belief of the celebrity in the benefit and value of the product (Kelman, 2001).
The second element of the Kelman’s process regarding the impact of celebrity endorsement on consumer behavior on luxury goods is an identification (Kelman, 2001). Identification is applicable to a situation where the consumers are likely to emulate the behavior and attitudes of another individuals (Kelman, 2001). This is due to the fact many consumers, who long for luxury products, aspire to be like the celebrity individual. This is what creates the basis for referent power where it was established that celebrities are usually more commonly liked and trusted as compared to the typical consumer spokesperson (Spry, Pappu, and Bettina Cornwell, 2011).
The third element of the Kelman’s process is compliance. The compliance element concludes that another individual influences the consumer behavior on that product because they usually hope to achieve the same outcome as that of the given celebrity group or person (Kelman, 2001). This social influence process directly applies to celebrity advertisement of the zero or very minimal personal interaction between the consumer and celebrity hence cannot prove on a one on one basis (Kelman, 2001).
2.6 Psychology behind Consumer Decisions and Celebrity Endorsements
A number of celebrities have endorsed a consumer study which has undertaken in the UK on the consumer demeanor of luxury products portrayed a paramount number of products despite the consumers being their fans or not (Biswas, Hussain, and O’Donnell, 2009).
This study demonstrates that the consumer’s mind inclines to identify celebrities in the same manner that it knows the people that they know. Consequently, the probable effect is that if the consumers are fans of the celebrities, then they will place a rather higher value on the products which the celebrities are endorsing (Biswas, Hussain, and O’Donnell, 2009). As they perceive the advertised product as if they were receiving it from a friend that they value. This ends up drawing them to the product regardless of their worth (Biswas, Hussain, and O’Donnell, 2009).
When celebrities endorse or vouch for a brand or product on behalf of a given company, the company manages to increment vigilance and trust of the brand or product which are vital variables in the decision-making process of the consumer to buy the product (Biswas, Biswas, and Das, 2006).
Various customers, in particular for the luxury products have a proclivity to be more sympathetic regarding a given brand if a well-known celebrity is promoting their preferred products that they like more so because they spend a substantial amount of money to acquire the products (Biswas, Biswas, and Das, 2006). This is a rather simple psychological impact.
Subconsciously, consumers have the construal that when they buy a particular product which is being endorsed by a given celebrity whom they venerate, then this will enable them to remotely emulate the desired traits of the particular celebrity (Biswas, Biswas, and Das, 2006). The consumers will incline to feel associated with the celebrities’ athletic skills, comeliness, or prosperity with a given product.
2.7 Brand Equity Model
According to, Aaker and Biel (2013) brand equity is the set of liabilities and assets which are linked with a given brand which creates value for both the company and the customers
These sets of liabilities and assets have been categorized into four groups which include perceived quality, brand association, brand awareness, brand loyalty, among other brand proprietary assets. On the perception of brand equity, these assets are referred to as the brand equity dimensions. Based on Aaker and Biel (2013), despite that brand equity is based on the four distinct aspects, then there is the need for brand management to benefit from on the strength of these given dimensions (Aaker and Biel, 2013).
2.8 Perceived Quality
As the perceived quality is a fundamental element of the brand equity model, this is basically the consumers’ judgment regarding the overall advantage or excellence of a given product.
It is so much expected that the luxury brands have the ability to offer some superior product performance and qualities when compared to the non-luxury brands (Aaker and Biel, 2013). The perfectionist consumers usually perceive a lot more value from the luxury brands as they often believe that they have a greater brand assurance and quality. The literature surrounding luxury consumption has accentuated on the importance of product leadership concerning product quality to confirm that there is a better perception regarding luxury (Aaker and Biel, 2013).
Therefore, perceived quality is known as an element of the brand value meaning that there is a possibility of the consumer choosing a given brand because of is elated perceived quality as opposed to the other competing brands (Aaker and Biel, 2013).
2.9 Brand Loyalty
Based on findings Aaker and Biel (2013) found majority of businesses have the marketing goal of developing, maintaining, and improving the customer loyalty towards its services, products, or brand.
Furthermore, having loyal consumers portray some more favorable responses to a given brand when compared to the switching or non-loyal customers (Aaker and Biel, 2013). Academics have suggested that the businesses which have their focus on building a solid customer loyalty will have the tendency to have an increased competitive advantage, reduced marketing costs, as well as improved profitability (Aaker and Biel, 2013).
Subsequent this, many companies have chosen to use celebrities to build this customer loyalty and increase their commitment to buy the products many other times
2.10 Balance Theory
The balance theory is based on the people’s assumption which is deeply inclined towards the consistency in their cognitions and relationships. Petty, Ostrom, and Brock (2014) argues that when it comes to the balance theory consumers tend to strike a balance where the social relationships get conflicted either through altering their attitudes or feelings towards situations and persons
Hence, the balance theory can be used to edify the effects of celebrity endorsement on the perception of the consumer regarding the endorsed luxury product (Petty, Ostrom, and Brock, 2014). For example, a consumer may perceive a given product to be more favorable of a celebrity who they like endorses it. On the other hand, if there is a negative perception around the endorsed product, then the consumer might start to see the liked celebrity in a different manner whilst viewing the product in a more convenient way.
In cases like these, all the potential outcomes need to be measured so that businesses could make a clearer prediction of the outcome of the marketing strategy (Petty, Ostrom, and Brock, 2014). Taking this into consideration, celebrity endorsement may achieve two various results at the same time which may have different results as well where the celebrity is viewed negatively but the product is liked. This presents the need for brand managers to assess the balance between the product and celebrity to ensure that the correct consumer behavior is achieved (Petty, Ostrom, and Brock, 2014).
2.11 Associative Learning Theory
De Houwer, Thomas, and Baeyens (2001) points out the associative learning theory has proven to be a useful framework when it comes to understanding the match-up effects. Besides, it is described as the mechanism for establishing the suitable relationships and links between the various endorsement concepts
In the celebrity endorsement context, the theory explains that both the endorsed product and the celebrity support represent the units which are related to the other units based on the experiences of the consumers with the endorser or the product.
These connections are, therefore, a symbol of the relationship between the endorser and the product (De Houwer, Thomas, and Baeyens, 2001). Consequently, this theory upholds that an essential variable in enhancing the possibility of the appropriate associative association is a similarity. The associative learning theory clarifies that the more similar the two concepts are, endorsed product and the celebrity endorser, then it is more likely that they will be integrated into the associative work (De Houwer, Thomas, and Baeyens, 2001). Therefore, it is the associative relationship between the celebrity endorser and the endorsed product which is the driving factor of the potential endorse effects.
2.12 Theoretical Framework
The Variables Explained:
Independent variable: Celebrity endorsement
Determinants of independent variable: Credibility, expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness similarity, liking, familiarity and match-up congruence
Dependent variable: Consumer buying decision
Moderator: Negative publicity of the celebrity endorser
Within this chapter the approach of this research will be discussed by presenting the methodologies and theories used. Furthermore, vital issues such as the preparation of research, the philosophy of the research, how the data will be collected, the sampling methods and the components of the questionnaire are covered.
Important issues such as philosophy of the research, preparation of the research, the method and procedure of data collection, components of the survey, the sampling decision is highlighted. The first process is the topic selection. The knowledge, observations, and interest on the topic aid to finalise the topic. After that, theories and literature have been searched to support the research.
3.1 Research Philosophy and Method
Based on Atkin and Block (1983) when conducting research it is important that there is a clear understanding of how the research will be approached. The author further explains philosophies and approaches are the first and second layers of the research onion.
In order to have a clear insight on the theory during this study it is important to decide in which approach the study will be conducted. As there are two main research approaches which will be used these approaches are discussed below.
In this study the deductive approach has been selected. As a deductive approach attempts to identify the theory first and then proceeding from the theory, the data collected is tested. Additionally, the deductive approach is a more suitable approach when dealing with quantitative data and as this research paper consists quantitative data, this method of approach is more than suitable this study.
According to Coldwell (2004) the research philosophy reflects the ways in which the world is viewed and also how the research is viewed, this aids the researcher to explain research approaches when collecting and analysing the data. For this study positivism is the philosophy which will be applied as it provides a natural science way to undertake the research, which means the researcher cannot affect or be affected by the subject of the research and the data can be collected without the researcher’s values and feelings affecting the research.
A blended technique approach is viewed as fitting to execute this investigation Creswell (2003) delineates the blended strategy approach includes incorporating quantitative and subjective information gathering examination in an examination. As indicated by Coldwell (2004) this technique accumulates and far reaching volume of data that is finished up on its remarkable plans and gathered data. This technique investigates a scope of thoughts trying to watch and recognize what is accountable for particular occurrences. There are various techniques for gathering data for this thought which is featured by (Creswell, 2009).
Coldwell (2004) represents, this system is utilized when gathering numerical data; as it explores words and additionally pictures. Moreover (Punch, 1998) features the approach of this strategy isn’t measured or predefined and it is exclusively centered around the member’s experience inside a typical setting.
As said this examination got a blended technique approach which offers an assorted blend of systems and procedures. Inside the examination a use of both subjective and quantitative procedures were utilized at the distinctive periods of the examination procedure.
3.2 Data Collection
In order to achieve the research objectives and to answer the research question this research paper will use both primary and secondary data as collection methods.
As the secondary data will provide a valuable source in which will answer the research question (Saunders et al, 2009). Moreover, secondary data gives more insight around the topic area whilst informing the primary research design.
3.3 Primary Data Questionnaires
To collect data from viewpoint of consumers, the strategy of the research is to use questionnaires, to investigate consumer behaviour and purchasing decisions, a qualitative approach is used to examine the results from the survey.
As surveys are a kind of research which are more rigid than interviews. They are usually used to gather ideas from a large population. Each respondent is asked to respond to the same set of questions, it provides an efficient way of collecting responses from a large sample prior to qualitative analysis (Saunders et al., 2009).
3.4 Secondary Data
The use of secondary data within this research is based on the fact that the deductive approach was applied to the study to evaluate the hypothesis which was observed within the previous literatures.
Furthermore, within this study resources in which were used are academic literature from books, journals, online databases and websites and previous papers surrounding this topic.
The secondary research started with the understanding of the fundamentals of the youth purchasing behaviour or intentions towards celebrity endorsed brands or products.
3.5 Sampling strategy
In order to address the research, aim the participants were selected using a non-probability sampling method was applied to this research.
As there are various types of non-probability sampling methods; two types of this sampling method which are suitable for this research; snowball sampling and purposive sampling. Furthermore, snowball sampling is used when it is hard to recognise members of the targeted population (Saunders et al, 2009).
This method of sampling begins with small amount of people who are suitable for the research topic and these small amounts of people identify further members and then they identify further members and so the sample snowballs.
Though, the issue with the snowball sample is that it is very questionable that the sample will represent the whole population, as the respondents tend to reach respondents who are similar to themselves (Saunders et al, 2009). Consequently, the purposive sampling method was applied as, purposive sampling provides the respondents to use their judgement to select cases that will enable them to meet the researchers objectives. (Saunders et al, 2009).
3.6 Research Strategy
The research instruments used within the study was a questionnaire. The use of the questionnaire allowed the researcher to collect information regarding a diverse circumstances or perspectives at specific cases through the findings of each respondent. The questionnaire fundamentally enclosed an expansive populace example and was likely to to research more variables within the shortest period of time. Furthermore, the questionnaire consisted of a number of structured questions to investigate how and what customer’s feelings are and thoughts towards the research.
Moreover, through the study the use of quantitative data verified how individuals may consider the case study and their desire. This most vital point of this that it permitted the researcher to sought data from a piece of populace as this framework met expectations in such a way, to the point that it generalised as it studies the entire populace.
An alternate point of interest of this technique is that it is not difficult to record and it encourages progressed factual examination. The significant weakness of utilizing these techniques were: it could be misused if surveys are not generally organized, and responses are low.
3.7 Reliability & Validity
This area reflects whether the information gathering from the questionnaires are dependable. Inside this examination, respondent’s reactions are solid temporarily as occasions inside showcasing always show signs of change. Regardless of asking similar questions to respondents, every respondent gave distinctive reactions, as every understudy have an alternate ordeal. At times, reactions may continue as before, while others may change a year after this study. For instance, understudies one year from now may give an alternate reaction.
4. FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
Factors motivate and affect consumer buying behavior, when buying luxury brands in the UK
4.1 Age and Celebrity endorsements
The table below indicates the ages of different people who are influence by celebrity endorsements
|Age||Percentage influence||Percentage not influenced|
From the above table, we can be able to say that young people are the most influenced by celebrity endorsements compared to that of the old. This is because from the table the percentage of influence reduces down the table as from 75% to 4%. This means that the young people do not have a stable consumption procedure something that makes them to depend on the celebrities they know to determine the kind of product that they will purchase.
This means that in the UK Luxury foot wear celebrity endorsement should much concentrate on the young generations. Another option should be used in order to be able to influence those that are in the older bracket. As a greater percentage of old people (96%) who are not influenced by celebrity endorsements to make purchases compare to the percentage of 25%.
4.2 Gender and celebrity endorsements
The table below indicates the gender and number of employed people who over a period of time that have been influenced by celebrity endorsements;
|Those who are influence||Those who have not been influenced|
The above table indicates there are 37 female consumers who are influenced by celebrity endorsements to make purchases compared that of their male counterparts that stands at 21.
0n the other hand, it indicates that the number of male who are not influenced by celebrity endorsements to make purchases stands at 27 in comparison to that of female that stands at 15. This is an indication that the females are easily influenced by the celebrities compared to the female counterparts.
Therefore, there is need that the foot wear industry in the UK to look for the different ways to ensure that the male are being targeted to increase their sales. It should be the most important priority of those involved in the whole process to ensure that those factors that are primary to the consumers when making purchases are well satisfied.
The perceived quality is an element of the brand which is the customer’s judgment regarding the overall superiority or excellence of a given product. They expect so much that the luxury brands have the ability to offer some superior product performance and qualities when compared to the non-luxury brands (White, Goddard & Wilbur, 2009).
Those consumers that are keen, usually perceive a lot more value from the luxury brands because they often assume that they have a greater brand reassurance and quality.
4.3 Goods that are commonly endorsed by celebrities
The pie chart below indicates the percentages that different goods take in the endorsement by the celebrities.
The pie chart above indicates that electronic goods have a 45% celebrity promotional followed by the services at 22% clothes and footwear at 21%, vehicles come in last at 12%. This indicates that footwear have not much been endorsed by different celebrities and there is room for improvement. The footwear industry should start involving celebrities in their brands to ensure that they do well. The electronic industry is doing well we have seen the technological companies using celebrities much to give confidence to their customers through the celebrity endorsements.
Most of the respondents indicate that they perceive a given product to be more favorable of a celebrity who they like endorses it. If they like the celebrity they will likely purchase it. Therefore, there is need for the celebrity considered to make a particular endorsement to be one who has got a good reputation about that given product. The footwear industry should consider those celebrities to be the best when it comes to goods associated with footwear.
On the other hand, if the endorsed product is already disliked, then the consumer might start to perceive the liked celebrity in a less favorable manner while viewing the product in a more convenient way.
In these scenarios, all the potential results need to be considered so that the management could make a near accurate prediction of the outcome of the marketing strategy (Biswas, Hussain & O’Donnell, 2009). Taking this into consideration, celebrity endorsement may achieve two different results at the same time which may have mixed results as well where the celebrity is disliked but the product is liked or vice versa.
This presents the need for brand managers to evaluate the balance between the product and celebrity to ensure that the correct consumer behavior is achieved.
4.4 The influence of celebrity endorsement in improving the perception of a given product
The bar graph below indicates the number of consumers and how they perceive a brand that has been endorsed by a given celebrity.
From the above bar graph, majority of the consumers believed that brands that are endorsed by celebrities are of high quality compared to those that do not engage in such endorsements.
The percentages are distributed from 48%, 23%, 18% and 11% respectively. This an indication that most of the consumers believe on the goods and brands that have been endorsed by celebrities. This means that celebrity endorsements play a very important role in ensuring that the brands of a given good are increased in the market.
Added to this, half of the population have got a positive perception when a given commodity is endorsed by those celebrities that they know. The engagement in celebrity endorsements as a marketing strategy has a got a very positive impact. There is need for any organization to engage in such activities has consumers have a psychological believe that celebrities cannot engage products that are not good in terms of quality.
Using popular celebrities in endorsing different products is key when it comes to popularizing a brand and many of the followers will follow shoot in impressing what the celebrities are engaging (White, Goddard & Wilbur, 2009).
Additionally, most consumers have given attention to those products that are celebrity endorsed products. When celebrities vouch or promote a given brand or product on behalf of a given entity, the company manages to increase awareness, trust, and familiarity of the product or brand which are essential factors when it comes to decision-making processes towards a consumer purchasing a given product (Kelman, 2001).
Also, most of the celebrities understand a message that will best penetrate their followers hence they can easily entice them towards purchasing the products that they are endorsing.
4.5 Factors that motivate and affect consumer buying behaviour, when buying luxury brands in the UK
The line graph below indicates the extent to which some of the consumers are being influence by the celebrity endorsements that are being run by different companies in the UK.
The figure 3 above is an indication on how consumers beg their decisions on the celebrity endorsements. 51% of the respondents strongly follow what the celebrities they know undertake.
On the other hand, those that moderately try to conform with these celebrities are 31% and lastly those who are not influenced at all stand 18%. From the above findings, it can be indicated that majority of the consumers are being influenced by the lifestyle of the celebrity icons.
There is need for the footwear industry to bring the celebrity idea into their marketing campaigns, as this will ever see the growth of the industry as many of the consumers will try to purchase the goods and services more than they could in the past when other marketing techniques were being used.
The primary role that the celebrity endorsement plays when it comes to marketing strategy. Many customers, to be specific those that are interested in luxury goods tend to be more emotional when selecting a given brand. In the case where a given celebrity comes in and promotes a product they have an intention of purchasing, they will quickly make the decision due to the confidence they derive from the impact created by that particular product (Kelman, 2001).
They can be even be willing to spend more if a more prominent personality is used to endorse of given product. This plays an important role in brand promotion, as this is the part where the marketers tend to play a psychological marketing strategy on consumer decision making.
Moreover, the consumers without knowing, will tend to rush to the purchase of a given product with an intention of emulating a given celebrity. In this part admiring of a celebrity is what influences a customer towards purchasing a given product and becoming trend in what they are doing.
The feeling of association with a given celebrity at this doing is driven home let say if a given celebrity is an athlete then it becomes easy for him to have attachment with his followers using these endorsements.
Most of respondents indicate that celebrities are like their idols so they will always want to use the products similar to what they have. Promoting a product using this means has a wide reach compared to any other form of advertisement.
According to the associate learning theory there exists a relationship between the consumer perception of the brand and the endorsement done by celebrities (De Houwer, Thomas, and Baeyens, 2001)
4.6 The limitations associated with celebrity endorsement
The table below indicates the number of people who frequently purchase luxury goods and services through the influence of celebrity endorsement
|Age||No. of individuals|
The above table indicates that the number of young individuals interested in purchasing luxury goods and services stands at 51 of the respondents, 37 and 12 respectively for the middle aged and the elderly. These implies that the young generation are the most influenced by luxurious products. They always want to purchase luxurious goods and services.
Therefore, by associating a given good with a celebrity it’s giving a hedge towards being luxurious and convenience. It is important to note that all celebrity endorsements should be done in such a way that it will cut across all the ages. There is need to look into the middle aged and elderly people when purchasing the luxurious goods.
Though, celebrity at a point a given age group may not be interested much for celebrity endorsement, there is need to undertake this as it gives an advertising platform using this means as it will be increasing awareness towards choosing that given product. When they shall be in need of a product in that particular line, then the awareness shall give them an option of considering your product.
Various celebrities have endorsed different products in the UK. The behavior of consumers when it comes to luxurious products consumers will always want a given class and being associated with a give respectable personality will always be key for them (White, Goddard & Wilbur,2009).
The finding here indicates that human beings are always wanting to be elites in the society and majority of them are imitating the lifestyle of a given individual. They always want to be tagged with individuals who are known in the community.
Therefore, there is no way one can underestimate the issue of using celebrity endorsement to influence others. Consumers will always see value of what they are doing if a given celebrity has what they have, the products for them will be of quality and they trust that brand has one approved by those that they respect in the society (Biswas, Hussain & O’Donnell, 2009).
Though the product worth may not be matching the product that the celebrities may be promoting, they will be purchasing the product based on the confidence that they will be having on their idols (celebrities) (Choi & Rifon, 2007).
In fact if a given celebrity does things that are best in the society and always they want to support him with all the kind of endorsements that he does by purchasing that particular product.
4.7 Some of the factors that consumer consider when making purchasing decisions
The table below indicates some of the factors that consumers consider before taking a purchasing decisions.
The above table indicates that quality of a given good has the highest influence when it comes to consumer decision making which stands at 55% of the respondents. The price followed with 39%, availability at 4% and lastly durability at 2%. From the above it is important to note that despite undertaking celebrity endorsements in any given product should be of high quality to attract customers.
Also, the prices should be reasonable because customers also take them in consideration when making purchases of any given product. Therefore, celebrity endorsements can be made effective if the above considerations are well observed as they also influence customer decisions. It should be the most important priority of those involved in the whole process to ensure that those factors that are primary to the consumers when making purchases are well satisfied.
The perceived quality is an element of the brand which is the customer’s judgment regarding the overall superiority or excellence of a given product (Houwer, Thomas & Baeyens, 2001). They expect so much that the luxury brands have the ability to offer some superior product performance and qualities when compared to the non-luxury brands. Those consumers that are keen, usually perceive a lot more value from the luxury brands because they often assume that they have a greater brand reassurance and quality.
The findings above can be related to balance theory developed by Fritz Heider (1946) that has indicated that people will change their perception on a given by relating it to quality of the product. Celebrity endorsements tend to make products be seen as of high quality.
Celebrity endorsement to some extent has become a trend for companies in the UK. Most advertisements made are accompanied with different celebrities in different walks of life. This is meant to ensure that in the long run more followers of the celebrities are made aware of a given existing brand.
The celebrities have enabled companies to sell more than before. Therefore, this has turned to be considered and major industries are shifting towards celebrity endorsement of their products (Atwal & Williams, 2009). The psychological factors mostly are the ones that marketers are trying to deal with when making celebrity endorsements.
Most of the consumers have got a belief that the celebrity are always associated with products that of high quality. They also, want to be trendy in what they are using. So, if a given celebrity in a given field that they like uses a given product they will want to use it so that they can be identified with that particular product. These will attract more customers more so those from the youth products (Kelman, 2001).
Consumers who follow celebrity news will always be influenced towards purchases even though they do not need it to a greater extent.
Most consumers have given attention to those products that are celebrity endorsed products. When celebrities promote or vouch for a brand or product on behalf of a given company, the company manages to increase familiarity, trust, and awareness of the brand or product which are essential variables in the decision-making process of the consumer to purchase the product.
Also, most of the celebrities understand a message that will best penetrate their followers hence they can easily entice them towards purchasing the products that they are endorsing (Chan , Leung & Luk, 2013). Many customers, in particular for the luxury products tend to be more sympathetic regarding a given brand if a well-known celebrity is promoting their preferred products that they admire more so because they spend a significant amount of money to acquire the products. This is a rather simple psychological impact.
Subconsciously, consumers have the belief that when they purchase a particular product which is being endorsed by a given celebrity whom they admire, then this will enable them to sort of emulate the desired traits of the particular celebrity. The consumers will tend to feel associated with the celebrities’ athletic skills, beauty, or success with a given product (Houwer, Thomas, & Baeyens, 2001). Most of respondents indicate that celebrities are like their idols so they will always want to use the products similar to what they have. Promoting a product using this means has a wide reach compared to any other form of advertisement.
5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
From the above findings, it can be concluded that celebrity endorsement plays an important role in marketing luxury footwear in the UK. As most of the consumers always try to ensure that they have trendy goods that resemble those of their idol celebrities. For example, it has been found through academic literature, that consumers are fond of football will always want to imitate the football icons in the ways they live. Hence, the endorsement of a given product by these professionals will always lead to increased sales of that product. More trust is gained when consumers such respected celebrities endorsing a given brand.
As, there has been a continuous increased use of celebrity endorsement. Many of the companies in the UK that have employed celebrity endorsement as part of their marketing strategy have seen significant and stable brand recognition.
According to Atwal & Williams, (2009) some of the major enterprises with the aim of supporting a brand and corporate imagery, especially for the luxury brands, have been able to use celebrities in order to penetrate the market.
There are organizations have invested a good amount of resources in brands and juxtaposing organizations with some endorser qualities like likeability, and trustworthiness. This is due to the fact that most of the celebrities have those who like and trust on what they are doing. These businesses trust that these positive qualities could generate some desirable campaign outcomes and operate in a way that is transferable particularly for the luxury goods.
However, there are also possibilities that the celebrities’ qualities could be undesirable, irrelevant, and inappropriate. The qualities of the celebrity endorser will then have some effect on the consumer behavior and how they perceive a product to be. Therefore, the primary question becomes; how can the organization manage this resource simultaneously while at the same time managing the possible pitfalls? How can the same organizations make a selection and retain the ‘appropriate’ celebrity among the various competing options?
Marketers will always need to understand the target market when they are deciding the celebrity to be used in endorsing a given product. There are celebrities that command the youth following hence it will be difficult for a marketer to reach the elderly age with the same person.
Endorsement needs thorough research for them to deliver. It will be very important to the marketer to carry out a market research to understand all the dynamics needed in ensuring that the endorsement meets the maximum demands.
Luxurious goods always need to be associated with famous individuals in the society. For a company to capture the attention of the consumers, it will important for them to ensure all the factors that the consumer wants to see and know about the product are included in the endorsement.
It is important to note that despite undertaking celebrity endorsements in any given product should be of high quality to attract customers. Also, the prices should be reasonable because customers also take them in consideration when making purchases of any given product.
Therefore, celebrity endorsements can be made effective if the above considerations are well observed as they also influence customer decisions. It should be the most important priority of those involved in the whole process to ensure that those important factors that are primary to the consumers when making purchases are well satisfied.
There is need for the footwear industry to bring the celebrity endorsement and consumer decision making factors inclusion ideas into their marketing campaigns. This will ever see the growth of the industry as many of the consumers will try to purchase the goods and services more than they could in the past when other marketing techniques were being used.
The primary role that the celebrity endorsement plays when it comes to marketing strategy, plays a big effect on customers, as the more they are interested in luxury goods they tend to be more emotional when selecting a given brand.
In the case where a given a celebrity will come in and promote a product that the given customer may not have an intention of purchasing, they will quickly make the decision due to the confidence they derive from the impact created by that product. They can be even be willing to spend more if a more prominent personality is used to endorse of given product.
This plays an important role in brand promotion. This is the part where the marketers tend to play a psychological marketing strategy on consumer decision making. The consumers without knowing, will tend to rush to the purchase of a given product with an intention of emulating a given celebrity. In this part admiring of a celebrity is what influences a customer towards purchasing a given product and becoming trend in what they are doing.
The feeling of association with a given celebrity at this doing is driven home let say if a given celebrity is an athlete then it becomes easy for him to have attachment with his followers using these endorsements. Most of respondents indicate that celebrities are like their idols so they will always want to use the products similar to what they have. Promoting a product using this means has a wide reach compared to any other form of advertisement.
All celebrity endorsements should be done in such a way that it will cut across all the ages. There is need to look into the middle aged and elderly people when purchasing the luxurious goods. Though celebrity at a point a given age group may not be interested much for celebrity endorsement, there is need to undertake this as it gives an advertising platform using this means as it will be increasing awareness towards choosing that given product. When they shall be in need of a product in that particular line, then the awareness shall give them an option of considering your product.
Celebrity endorsements play a very important role in ensuring that the brands of a given good are increased in the market. Half of the population have got a positive perception when a given commodity is endorsed by those celebrities that they know.
The engagement in celebrity endorsements as a marketing strategy has a got a very positive impact. There is need for any organization to engage in such activities has consumers have a psychological believe that celebrities cannot engage products that are not good in terms of quality.
Using popular celebrities in endorsing different products is key when it comes to popularizing a brand and many of the followers will follow shoot in impressing what the celebrities are engaging. Most consumers have given attention to those products that are celebrity endorsed products.
When celebrities vouch or promote a given brand or product on behalf of a given entity, the company manages to increase awareness, trust, and familiarity of the product or brand which are essential factors when it comes to decision-making processes towards a consumer purchasing a given product. Also, most of the celebrities understand a message that will best penetrate their followers hence they can easily entice
Lastly, there is need to undertake further research to ensure that we understand further methods of making celebrity endorsement strategy more effective. The need of inclusion other factors that influence consumer decision making when undertaking search campaigns is very important as it will increase the sale in the market.
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